Will we be able to produce enough food to feed a more populated and likely richer world in 2050? The answer to this question depends not just on what technologies we develop but also on what people in different parts of the world will want to eat in 2050. A new paper by Christophe Gouel and Houssein Guimbard in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics takes data from consumption of 7 categories of food in over 100 different countries to explore how food demand changes with income and population, and then they use these estimates to project future food demand given estimates of income and population growth.
First, they show that as incomes rise, demand for oils and fats and for animal-based food increases.
The following graph (from their appendix) shows the projected changes in global demand for different types of food on out to 2100.
Here is a summary of their findings: